EFFECT OF ALCOHOL ON THE BLOOD.

Dr. Richardson, in his lectures on alcohol, given both in England and America, speaking of the action of this substance on the blood after passing from the stomach, says:

“Suppose, then, a certain measure of alcohol be taken into the stomach, it will be absorbed there, but, previous to absorption, it will have to undergo a proper degree of dilution with water, for there is this peculiarity respecting alcohol when it is separated by an animal membrane from a watery fluid like the blood, that it will not pass through the membrane until it has become charged, to a given point of dilution, with water. It is itself, in fact, so greedy for water, it will pick it up from watery textures, and deprive them of it until, by its saturation, its power of reception is exhausted , after which it will diffuse into the current of circulating fluid.”

It is this power of absorbing water from every texture with which alcoholic spirits comes in contact, that creates the burning thirst of those who freely indulge in its use. Its effect, when it reaches the circulation, is thus described by Dr. Richardson:

“As it passes through the circulation of the lungs it is exposed to the air, and some little of it, raised into vapor by the natural heat, is thrown off in expiration. If the quantity of it be large, this loss may be considerable, and the odor of the spirit may be detected in the expired breath. If the quantity be small, the loss will be comparatively little, as the spirit will be held in solution by the water in the blood. After it has passed through the lungs, and has been driven by the left heart over the arterial circuit, it passes into what is called the minute circulation, or the structural circulation of the organism. The arteries here extend into very small vessels, which are called arterioles, and from these infinitely small vessels spring the equally minute radicals or roots of the veins, which are ultimately to become the great rivers bearing the blood back to the heart. In its passage through this minute circulation the alcohol finds its way to every organ. To this brain, to these muscles, to these secreting or excreting organs, nay, even into this bony structure itself, it moves with the blood. In some of these parts which are not excreting, it remains for a time diffused, and in those parts where there is a large percentage of water, it remains longer than in other parts. From some organs which have an open tube for conveying fluids away, as the liver and kidneys, it is thrown out or eliminated, and in this way a portion of it is ultimately removed from the body. The rest passing round and round with the circulation, is probably decomposed and carried off in new forms of matter.

“When we know the course which the alcohol takes in its passage through the body, from the period of its absorption to that of its elimination, we are the better able to judge what physical changes it induces in the different organs and structures with which it comes in contact. It first reaches the blood; but, as a rule, the quantity of it that enters is insufficient to produce any material effect on that fluid. If, however, the dose taken be poisonous or semi-poisonous, then even the blood, rich as it is in water and it contains seven hundred and ninety parts in a thousand is affected. The alcohol is diffused through this water, and there it comes in contact with the other constituent parts, with the fibrine, that plastic substance which, when blood is drawn, clots and coagulates, and which is present in the proportion of from two to three parts in a thousand; with the albumen which exists in the proportion of seventy parts; with the salts which yield about ten parts; with the fatty matters; and lastly, with those minute, round bodies which float in myriads in the blood (which were discovered by the Dutch philosopher, Leuwenhock, as one of the first results of microscopical observation, about the middle of the seventeenth century), and which are called the blood globules or corpuscles. These last-named bodies are, in fact, cells; their discs, when natural, have a smooth outline, they are depressed in the centre, and they are red in color; the color of the blood being derived from them. We have discovered that there exist other corpuscles or cells in the blood in much smaller quantity, which are called white cells, and these different cells float in the blood-stream within the vessels. The red take the centre of the stream; the white lie externally near the sides of the vessels, moving less quickly. Our business is mainly with the red corpuscles. They perform the most important functions in the economy; they absorb, in great part, the oxygen which we inhale in breathing, and carry it to the extreme tissues of the body; they absorb, in great part, the carbonic acid gas which is produced in the combustion of the body in the extreme tissues, and bring that gas back to the lungs to be exchanged for oxygen there; in short, they are the vital instruments of the circulation.

“With all these parts of the blood, with the water, fibrine, albumen, salts, fatty matter and corpuscles, the alcohol comes in contact when it enters the blood, and, if it be in sufficient quantity, it produces disturbing action. I have watched this disturbance very carefully on the blood corpuscles; for, in some animals we can see these floating along during life, and we can also observe them from men who are under the effects of alcohol, by removing a speck of blood, and examining it with the microscope. The action of the alcohol, when it is observable, is varied. It may cause the corpuscles to run too closely together, and to adhere in rolls; it may modify their outline, making the clear-defined, smooth, outer edge irregular or crenate, or even starlike; it may change the round corpuscle into the oval form, or, in very extreme cases, it may produce what I may call a truncated form of corpuscles, in which the change is so great that if we did not trace it through all its stages, we should be puzzled to know whether the object looked at were indeed a blood-cell. All these changes are due to the action of the spirit upon the water contained in the corpuscles; upon the capacity of the spirit to extract water from them. During every stage of modification of corpuscles thus described, their function to absorb and fix gases is impaired, and when the aggregation of the cells, in masses, is great, other difficulties arise, for the cells, united together, pass less easily than they should through the minute vessels of the lungs and of the general circulation, and impede the current, by which local injury is produced.

“A further action upon the blood, instituted by alcohol in excess, is upon the fibrine or the plastic colloidal matter. On this the spirit may act in two different ways, according to the degree in which it affects the water that holds the fibrine in solution. It may fix the water with the fibrine, and thus destroy the power of coagulation; or it may extract the water so determinately as to produce coagulation.”

 

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Ways To Lose Weight That Actually Work

This article will attempt to address the many questions you may have regarding your weight loss strategy and how best to implement it. Listed below are some tips that will help you get started on your weight loss aspirations.

The best way to prevent yourself from eating fatty or sweet foods is to not have them in the house in the first place. For example, don’t bring home muffins, that way you won’t have to decide whether or not to eat them. Rather than having unhealthy items, keep healthy food choices easily accessible to grab for a quick snack. Keep fresh, sliced vegetables and fruits in your refrigerator so that they are always available for snacking.

Cardio is the best type of exercise to burn off fat. Cardio exercises keep your heart rate elevated, which in turn burns fat more quickly. If an exercise raised your heart rate and keeps it high, it counts as cardio, so look for something entertaining that you’ll stick with.

For people who are trying to shed some pounds and love to eat chips, switch to the baked versions to reduce calories. These chips have a much lower caloric content and fat content. For many people, they taste exactly the same.

You should always exercise with any weight loss plan. If your budget can handle the costs, then consider joining a local gym. Other options include Tai Chi, going for a walk or jog, or Pilates. But, if you have any medical conditions, speak with your doctor. There are plenty of exercises that you can do from home.

Choosing leaner cuts of meat can improve your weight-loss results. Try choosing lean cuts of meat, and flavoring them with seasonings instead of a sauce. These simple solutions will prevent your meat from being dry or tasteless. You can find chutneys in several different sweet, fruity flavors; they add a whole different flavor to your meats.

Don’t eat out a lot if you want to lose some weight. Portions at restaurants are typically larger than what you’d normally eat. Additionally, eating out at restaurants is difficult to find healthy food choices due to the excess sugar, fat and salt that are normally in these foods.

After reading this article, you are more prepared to begin losing weight. You can hopefully apply the tips and advice in this article to achieving the weight loss goals that you have set for yourself.

Tricks On How To Get Rid Of Sleep Apnea

If you have sleep apnea you understand that it can hurt your health. In order to be healthy you have to get enough sleep every night. Fortunately, there are some things you can do about it. The information in this article will help you find relief from your apnea.

It’s necessary to use a CPAP machine for four hours each night if your doctor has prescribed one for your sleep apnea. Going to bed with a CPAP machine humming away is certainly an adjustment that can be a challenge for some. A minimum of four hours per night is needed, if your CPAP machine is going to help you. If it is hard and become difficult to adjust to in the beginning, then ensure you are using it at least four hours a night.

Losing weight through a good diet can fight sleep apnea. Not everyone equates bad and good food with sleep apnea, but many people have found out that it does play a role. Good nutrition can help many medical conditions, including sleep apnea.

You really should cut down on your alcohol consumption. Alcohol causes all the muscles in your body to lose their tension. Drinking alcohol will make it hard for you to get through the night if you have sleep apnea. Like the rest of your muscles, those around your throat and airway relax under the influence of alcohol, making it harder for you to maintain a proper air passage. If you can’t give up drinking completely, at least make an effort to moderate your intake and avoid having alcohol in the hours leading up to your bedtime.

You need to have a complete physical exam and give a thorough medical history in order to get a sleep apnea diagnosis. In addition, a sleep study may be required. Some doctors may send you to a doctor that specializes in sleep disorders. This is a specialist that concentrates on treating people who are having trouble sleeping.

You can wear a chin strap with your CPAP if you have problems with your mouth falling open as you sleep. The chin strap will help hold you chin up during the time you are sleep which keeps your mouth closed. Try this out to keep your mouth closed.

As you can now see, there are effective methods for handling sleep apnea. Use the above tips to start enjoying your well-deserved rest. The quality of your life will be greatly improved after your sleeping problems are solved.

Are You Ready To Stop Smoking? Tips To Make It Stick

Smoking can be severely detrimental to many aspects of your life. On a superficial level, smoking affects the way your home, clothes and breath smell. Even more troubling, smoking dramatically affects your internal health. Studies have shown that virtually all of the damage you do to your body while smoking is repairable, if you quit. This article provides a number of effective strategies to aid in your efforts to stop smoking.

You should try to ease the pain of quitting as much as possible. Never try to go cold turkey. Only 5% of people who try this method are successful. Nicotine is a drug, and like all drugs it can be physically addicting. Opt for nicotine replacements or prescription medications to help you kick the habit. These aids will help you through the first stages of withdrawal and make your plan to quit smoking easier.

Make sure you take the process one day at the time. The road to stopping is just a process. You should not lose sleep over next week, month or even next year. Take one day at a time. Focus on getting through each day without smoking so that you can build a future that is smoke-free.

Tell your loved ones that you’re quitting smoking today. Other people knowing about your goal will both hold you accountable and give you a support system. This could be that extra push that helps keep you on track towards your smoking cessation.

Make a list of strategies to help you quit. Take time to customize your list as a way to quit smoking more effectively. Each person does things their own way. It’s useful for you to understand exactly what works the best for you. Creating this personalized list does just that.

Take things day by day. There is no need to dwell on stopping forever; simply resolve to quit smoking for the day you are in right now. If you take things in a shorter time frame, it is often easier to cope with the stress. As you get further along, you can start to lengthen your goals.

Creating a workout plan or an exercise program to help fill the void left by cigarettes. Just getting moving will help you defeat your stress. Start slowly by taking walks around your neighborhood. Speak to your physician before beginning an exercise routine.

Although the thought of quitting smoking is often daunting, the benefits to your health are well worth the effort. Hopefully, using the advice presented in this article will make you feel secure about your power to completely stop smoking. Select a tip today.